DIAMOND GUIDE

DIAMOND GUIDE

DIAMOND GLOSSARY

DIAMOND GLOSSARY

DIAMOND SHAPES

DIAMOND SHAPES

   The round brilliant cut diamond is by far the most popular and most researched diamond shape available today. For almost 100 years, diamond cutters have been using advanced theories of light behavior and precise mathematical calculations to optimize the fire and  brilliance in a round diamond. In addition to being the most popular and researched shape, a round diamond will typically give you more flexibility in terms of balancing cut, color, and clarity grades while still getting the fire and brilliance you want.

   To maximize the brilliance of a traditional round diamond, select one in the two highest cut grades, excellent or very good, and choose ideal, excellent, or very good polish and symmetry grades. For the finest ideal round diamonds available.

 

 

 

Ideal cut

Very fine cut

Total depth%

59-63%

59-63%

Table%

52,4-57,5%

51,4-62%

Girdle tickness

Thin-medium

Very thin-thick

Culet

None-medium

None-medium

Polish

Excellent-very good

Excellent-good

Symmetry

Excellent-very good

Excellent-good

Length to width ratio

+/- 1 to 1

+/- 1 to 1

Crown angle

33.7-35.8 Degrees

32.2-36.8 Degrees

Crown height%

15%-16.2%

13.1%-16.2%

Pavillon angle

40.5-41 Degrees

39.7-41.7 Degrees

Pavillon depth%

42.2-43.8%

41.7-44.8%

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   This is the most popular non-round diamond. Its beautiful brilliance and unique cut makes it a favorite for engagement rings. The princess has pointed corners and is traditionally square in shape. When choosing a color grade, consider that while the price of a J-color non-round diamond is exceptional, color may be slightly visible in its corners. Also, princess-cut diamonds can vary greatly in how square or rectangular they are. This will determine what the diamond will look like when viewing it from above. Here are length-to-width ratios for princess-cut diamond shapes that are pleasing to the eye.                      

                     

                                              Ideal to very fine cut
Total depth%                          65-80%
Table%                                   65-80%
Girdle tickness                       Very thin-thick
Culet                                      None-medium
Polish                                    Excellent- good
Symmetry                              Excellent- good

 

   What makes this shape different is its pavilion, which is cut with rectangular facets to create a unique optical appearance. Due to its larger, open table, this shape highlights the clarity of a diamond. If you choose an emerald-cut with a lower clarity grade, such as SI, be sure to review the clarity plot on the diamond certificate. Also, emerald-cut diamonds can vary greatly in how rectangular they are. If you’d prefer an emerald cut with a squared outline, look for an Asscher-cut diamond. The length-to-width ratio will determine the diamond’s outline, or what it will look like when viewed from the top.                      

            

    

                                              Ideal to very fine cut
Total depth%                          65-75%
Table%                                   65-75%
Girdle tickness                       Very thin-thick
Culet                                      None-medium
Polish                                     Excellent- good
Symmetry                               Excellent- good

 

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   The shape of a marquise diamond can maximize carat weight, giving you a much larger-looking diamond. This brilliant-cut diamond looks beautiful set with round or pear-shaped side stones, and the length of the marquise makes fingers appear long and slender. The length-to-width ratio will determine the diamond’s outline, or what it will look like when viewed from the top.                      

            

    

                                        Ideal to very fine cut
Total depth%                    62-68%
Table%                             50-62%
Girdle tickness                 Very thin-thick
Culet                                None-medium
Polish                               Excellent- good
Symmetry                         Excellent- good

 

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   Pear Diamond is another fancy shaped stone. The unique look of the pear shape helps make it a popular choice for a variety of diamond jewelry. If you choose an elongated pear shape, the length of the diamond creates a subtle slimming effect on the fingers.        

             

                      

                                      Ideal to very fine cut
Total depth%                  62-68%
Table%                           50-62%
Girdle tickness               Very thin-thick
Culet                              None-medium
Polish                             Excellent- good
Symmetry                       Excellent- good

 

   This unique shape has been popular for more than a century. Cushion-cut diamonds (also known as “pillow-cut” diamonds) have rounded corners and larger facets to increase their brilliance. These larger facets highlight the diamond’s clarity, so if you choose an SI clarity grade, be sure to review the clarity plot on the diamond certificate. Cushion-cut diamonds are available in shapes ranging from square to rectangular. The length-to-width ratio will determine the diamond’s outline, or what it will look like when viewed from the top.                     

            

    

                                                  Ideal to very fine cut
Total depth%                          58-70%
Table%                                   58-70%
Girdle tickness                       Very thin-Slightly
thick
Culet                                      None-medium
Polish                                     Excellent- good
Symmetry                               Excellent- good

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   This beautifully unique shape is nearly identical to the emerald-cut, except that it is square. Also, this shape has a pavilion that is cut with rectangular facets in the same style as the emerald-cut. If you choose SI-clarity be sure to view the clarity plot on the diamond certificate, because this shape highlights the clarity of the diamond. When choosing a color grade, consider that while the price of a J-color non-round diamond is exceptional, color may be slightly visible in its corners.                   

            

    

                                          Ideal to very fine cut
Total depth%                    58-70%
Table%                             58-70%
Girdle tickness                 Very thin-Slightly thick
Culet                                None-medium
Polish                               Excellent- good
Symmetry                         Excellent- good

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   An oval diamond has beautiful brilliance that’s similar to a round diamond. Oval diamonds are also very popular as their length can accentuate long, slender fingers. The length-to-width ratio will determine the diamond’s outline, or what it will look like when viewed from the top.                      

            

    

                                     Ideal to very fine cut
Total depth%                 62-68%
Table%                          50-62%
Girdle tickness              Very thin-thick
Culet                             None-medium
Polish                            Excellent- good
Symmetry                      Excellent- good

 

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   The heart is the ultimate symbol of love. The unique look of the heart-shaped diamond helps make it a distinctive choice for a variety of diamond jewelry. When choosing a color grade, consider that while the price of a J-color heart shaped diamond is exceptional, color may be slightly visible in its corners. The length-to-width ratio will determine the diamond’s outline, or what it will look like when viewed from the top.                   

            

    

                                        Ideal to very fine cut
Total depth%                    50-60%
Table%                             50-66%
Girdle tickness                 Very thin-thick
Culet                                None-medium
Polish                               Excellent- good
Symmetry                         Excellent- good

 

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   Trimmed corners are the signature of this diamond, and they help make the radiant-cut a popular and versatile choice for jewelry. A radiant-cut looks equally beautiful set with either baguette or round side-diamonds. Radiant-cut diamonds can vary in their degree of rectangularity. The length-to-width ratio will determine the diamond’s outline, or what it will look like when viewed from the top.

                     

                     

                                      Ideal to very fine cut
Total depth%                  65-80%
Table%                           65-80%
Girdle tickness               Very thin-thick
Culet                              None-medium
Polish                             Excellent- good
Symmetry                       Excellent- good

 

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OTHER SHAPES

Culet: A tiny flat facet that diamond cutters sometimes add at the bottom of a diamond's pavilion. Its purpose is to protect the tip of the pavilion from being chipped or damaged. Once a diamond is set in jewelry, though, the setting itself generally provides the pavilion with sufficient protection from impact or wear. Large or extremely large culets were common in diamonds cut in the early part of this century, such as the Old European or Old Mine Cut. However, such large culets are rarely seen today. Most modern shapes have either no culet at all, or a small or very small culet.

 

Depth: The height of a diamond from the culet to the table. The depth is measured in millimeters.

 

Depth Percentage: On a diamond grading report, you will see two different measurements of the diamond's depth-the actual depth in millimeters (under "measurements" at the top of the report) and the depth percentage, which expresses how deep the diamond is in comparison to how wide it is. This depth percentage of a diamond is important to its brilliance and value, but it only tells part of the story. Where that depth lies is equally important to the diamond's beauty; specifically, the pavilion should be just deep enough to allow light to bounce around inside the diamond and be reflecting out to the eye at the proper angle. Keep in mind, also, that a depth percentage that might be excessive for one diamond cut might be necessary for another type of cut. For example, a 75% or 78% depth in a princess cut diamond would be typical and quite attractive. However, a depth of even 65% would be unnecessary and even detrimental to a round diamond's beauty.

 

Diamond: A crystal made up of 99.95% pure carbon atoms arranged in an isometric, or cubic, crystal arrangement. It is this unique arrangement of the carbon atoms that makes diamond look and behave differently from other pure carbon minerals such as graphite
(the soft black material used to make pencils).

 

Diamond Cutting: The method by which a rough diamond that has been mined from the earth is shaped into a finished, faceted stone. As a first step, cleaving or sawing is often used to separate the rough into smaller, more workable pieces that will each eventually become an individual polished gem. Next, bruting grinds away the edges, providing the outline shape (for example, heart, oval or round) for the gem. Faceting is done in two steps: during blocking, the table, culet, bezel and pavilion main facets are cut; afterward, the star, upper girdle and lower girdle facets are added. Once the fully faceted diamond has been inspected and improved, it is boiled in hydrochloric and sulfuric acids to remove dust and oil. The diamond is then considered a finished, polished gem.

 

Diamond Gauge: An instrument that is used to measure a diamond's length, width and depth in millimeters.

 

Dispersion: Arranged around the table facet on the crown are several smaller facets (bezel and star facets) angled downward at varying degrees. These facets, and the angles at which they are cut, have been skillfully designed to break up white light as it hits the surface, separating it into its component spectral colors (for example, red, blue and green). This effect, which appears as a play of small flashes of color across the surface of the diamond as it is tilted, is what we refer to as the diamond's dispersion (also called "fire"). This play of color should not be confused with a diamond's natural body color (normally white, though sometimes yellow, brown, pink or blue in the case of fancy color diamonds) which is uniform throughout the entire diamond and is constant, regardless of whether it is being tilted or not.

 

Eye-Clean: An term used in the jewelry industry to describe a diamond with no blemishes or inclusions that are visible to the naked eye (i.e. a human eye which is not aided by magnifying devices such as a jeweler's loupe or a microscope).

 

Facet: The smooth, flat faces on the surface of a diamond. They allow light to both enter a diamond and reflect off its surface at different angles, creating the wonderful play of color and light for which diamonds are famous. The table below shows all the facets on a round brilliant cut diamond. A round brilliant has 58 facets (or 57 if there is no culet). The shape, quantity, and arrangement of these facets will differ slightly among other fancy shapes.

 

Feathers: These are small fractures in a diamond. They are usually caused by the tremendous stress that the diamond suffered while it was growing underground. In some cases the feather both begins and ends within the diamond's surface and, in other cases, the feather begins inside the diamond and extends to the surface. When viewed under magnification, some feathers are transparent and others have a light white appearance to them. The term "feather" comes from the fact that, under magnification, these fractures often seem to have an indistinct, feathery shape to them. While the idea of buying a diamond with "fractures" may sound scary, the reality is that, with normal wear and care, most feathers pose no risk to the diamond's stability. Consider this: even with the feathers, these diamonds survived their growth and their journey to the surface intact. Once on the surface, they also survived the mining process, as well as the brutal stresses of the diamond cutting process. Though diamonds are certainly not invulnerable to damage, basic consideration to their care and handling during everyday wear will most likely protect them over the course of several human lifetimes.

 

Inclusion: A clarity characteristic found within a diamond. Most inclusions were created when the gem first formed in the earth.

 

Laser-Drill Holes: One of the few man-made inclusions that can occur inside a diamond. Why on earth would anyone want to drill holes into a perfectly good diamond? It may seem counter-intuitive, but drilling this type of hole into a diamond can actually raise its clarity grade. In some diamonds, the clarity grade may be determined mainly by the presence of just one or two dark included crystals in a diamond that is otherwise relatively free of inclusions. In certain circumstances, the diamond cutter will decide to use a procedure to remove the dark inclusions and, hopefully, increase the clarity of the diamond. First, a hole is precisely made with state-of-the-art equipment; it extends no further than it needs to, and its width is so small (about the size of a pinpoint) that a loupe or microscope is usually required to detect it. Next, a strong acid solution is forced into the new hole.
Since diamonds are resistant to acids, the solution actually dissolves the included crystal while leaving the diamond completely unharmed. The end result is a more transparent diamond. The structural stability of the diamond is not compromised in any way by this hole, and the process is permanent. Mondera does not advise purchasing any laser-drilled diamonds graded SI1 or higher. Though this is a permanent and acceptable clarity treatment, Mondera will not sell a diamond with a drill hole unless the customer understands what the treatment is, and what he is buying.

 

Length-to-width ratio: A comparison of how much longer a diamond is than it is wide. It is used to analyze the outline of fancy shapes only; it is never applied to round diamonds. There's really no such thing as an 'ideal' ratio; it's simply a matter of personal aesthetic preferences. For example, while many people are told that a 2 to 1 ratio is best for a marquise, most people actually tend to prefer a ratio of around 1.80 to 1 when they actually look at marquises. And though the standard accepted range for the length-to-width ratio of a marquise generally falls between 1.70 to 1 and 2.05 to 1, there are customers who insist on having 'fatter' marquises of about 1.60 to 1 and other customers who want longer, thinner marquises of 2.25 to 1.
   In the ratio, width is always represented by the value "1." To determine the value of the length, divide the millimeter measurement of the length by the millimeter measurement of the width. These millimeter measurements can be found at the top left-hand side of the diamond grading report. The measurements are always listed in the following order: Length x Width x Depth.
Here is an example of how the length-to-width ratio would be used:

   Consider a princess cut weighing 1.05 carats that has millimeter measurements of 5.73 x 5.52 x 4.11.
   The first value represents the diamond's length and the second value represents its width. To calculate the length-to-width ratio, divide 5.73 by 5.52.
   The result is 1.04 and it represents the length as it compares to the diamond's width (which you will remember is always represented by the value "1"). This means the length-to-width ratio for this    diamond is 1.04 to 1, which is an almost perfectly square diamond. This diamond will appear square to your eye.

 

Naturals: Small parts of the original rough diamond's surface which are left on the polished diamond, frequently on or near the girdle. While these are blemishes, they might also be regarded as a sign of skilled cutting; the presence of a natural reflects the cutter's ability to design a beautiful polished gem, while still retaining as much of the original crystal's weight as possible. In many cases, naturals do not affect the clarity grade. In most cases, they are undetectable to the naked eye.
   Another type of natural is the Indented Natural; in this case, the portion of the original rough diamond's surface which is left on the polished diamond dips slightly inward, creating an indentation. Usually, the cutter makes an effort to cut the polished diamond so that the indented natural will be confined to either the girdle or the pavilion (making it undetectable to the naked eye in the face-up position).

 

Pavé: A style of jewelry setting in which numerous small diamonds are mounted close together to create a glistening diamond crust that covers the whole piece of jewelry and obscures the metal under it.

 

Pavilion: The lower portion of the diamond, below the girdle.

 

Point: A unit of measurement used to describe the weight of diamonds. One point is equivalent to one-hundredth of a carat.

 

Ratio: A comparison of how much longer a diamond is than it is wide. It is used to analyze the outline of fancy shapes only; it is never applied to round diamonds. There's really no such thing as an 'ideal' ratio; it's simply a matter of personal aesthetic preferences. For example, while many people are told that a 2 to 1 ratio is best for a marquise, most people actually tend to prefer a ratio of around 1.80 to 1 when they actually look at marquises. And though the standard accepted range for the length-to-width ratio of a marquise generally falls between 1.70 to 1 and 2.05 to 1, there are customers who insist on having 'fatter' marquises of about 1.60 to 1 and other customers who want longer, thinner marquises of 2.25 to 1.
   In the ratio, width is always represented by the value "1." To determine the value of the length, divide the millimeter measurement of the length by the millimeter measurement of the width. These millimeter measurements can be found at the top left-hand side of the diamond grading report. The measurements are always listed in the following order: Length x Width x Depth.


Here is an example of how the length-to-width ratio would be used:
   Consider a princess cut weighing 1.05 carats that has millimeter measurements of 5.73 x 5.52 x 4.11.
   The first value represents the diamond's length and the second value represents its width. To calculate the length-to-width ratio, divide 5.73 by 5.52.
   The result is 1.04 and it represents the length as it compares to the diamond's width (which you will remember is always represented by the value "1").

   This means the length- to-width ratio for this diamond is 1.04 to 1, which is an almost perfectly square diamond. This diamond will appear square to your eye.

 

Semi-mount: A jewelry setting that has the side stones already mounted, but which contains an empty set of prongs which are intended to mount a diamond center stone that the customer selects separately.

 

Single-cut: A very small round diamond with only 16 or 17 facets, instead of the normal 57 or 58 facets of a full cut round brilliant. Single cuts are occasionally used for pavé jewelry and other jewelry that utilizes numerous small diamonds set closely together.

 

Step Cut: One of three styles of faceting arrangements. In this type of arrangement (named because its broad, flat planes resemble stair steps), there are three concentric rows of facets arranged around the table and, on the pavilion, there are three concentric rows arranged around the culet. Other styles of faceting arrangements include the brilliant cut (in which all facets radiate out from the center of the diamond toward its outer edges) and the mixed cut (in which either the crown or pavilion of a diamond is cut as a brilliant cut, and the other part of the diamond is cut as a step cut).

 

Table: The flat facet on the top of the diamond. It is the largest facet on a cut diamond.

 

Table percentage: The value which represents how the diameter of the table facet compares to the diameter of the entire diamond. So, a diamond with a 60% table has a table which is 60% as wide as the diamond's outline. For a round diamond, gemologists calculate table percentage by dividing the diameter of the table, which is measured in millimeters (this millimeter measurement does not appear on diamond grading reports) by the average girdle diameter (an average of the first two millimeter measurements on the top left-hand side of a diamond grading report). For a fancy shape diamond, table percentage is calculated by dividing the width of the table, at the widest part of the diamond, by the millimeter width of the entire stone (this total width measurement is the second of the three millimeter values in the top left-hand corner of the diamond grading report. Contrary to popular misconception, having a small table percentage (53% to 57%) does not make a round diamond any more brilliant than a diamond with a larger table.

CARAT WEIGHT

CARAT WEIGHT

 

   The carat weight of a diamond is simply the weight of the diamond. A carat is a unit of measurement and 1 carat is equal to 200 milligrams or 0.2 grams. Hence a 1.25 carat diamond will weigh 250 milligrams.
The value of a diamond comes partly due to the fact that larger diamonds are found far less often than smaller diamonds. This means that the price of a diamond will increase exponentially as the carat size of the diamond increases. All other things being equal, a 2 carat diamond will always be worth more than two 1 carat diamonds. The most common size of diamond that Jewelers sells is between 0.6 carats and 1.25 carats in size. This range of diamond has the best size for value ratio and is easily fitted in most pieces of jewelry.
   The size or carat weight of a diamond cannot be used alone to determine the value of a diamond. A large diamond will not be as valuable if it does not show good color, a fine cut or excellent clarity. All factors (cut, color, clarity and carat weight) are used together to determine the value of a diamond.
A common misconception is that a 2 carat diamond will look twice the size of a 1 carat diamond. Since the carat of a diamond refers to its weight, a 2 carat diamond will not be 2 times the size of a 1 carat diamond but it will be twice the weight. A 0.5 carat round diamond has a diameter of approximately 5.2mm while a 1.0 carat round diamond has a diameter of approximately 6.5mm.
   When choosing the carat size of your diamond, remember to keep a good balance between size and quality. If you are looking for a larger diamond, you may have to lower the color or clarity.

DIAMOND COLOR

DIAMOND COLOR

Diamonds are found in a variety of colors, but chances are all the diamonds you’ll see in your shopping will be white or yellow, and the whiter the better. The yellow color in diamonds comes from trace amounts of nitrogen. One part in a million will cause a yellow tint to appear in the K color diamond. As a rule, the more yellow the stone, the less value it has. There’s a good reason for this. The yellower the stone, the less sharp and sparkly it appears. A whiter stone lets greater amounts of light pass through it, making it sparkle and shine.

The exception to the rule is the Fancy Yellow (canary) diamond, which is beautiful bright yellow and priced similar to white diamonds. There are four color grades of Fancy Yellow (Fancy Light Yellow, Fancy Yellow, Fancy Intense Yellow and Fancy Vivid Yellow) with each deeper shade bringing a higher price.

D– Absolutely colorless- D is the highest color grade. The diamonds found in this category are very rare, as a result very expensive.
E– Colorless- minuscule traces of color can be noticed only by a trained gemologist using a 10X loupe.
F– Colorless- Small color traces can be detected by only an expert gemologist. However, a diamond belonging to this category is conceived as “colorless”. It is a first-rate diamond.

G-H– Near-colorless. Color difficult to detect unless compared side-by-side against diamonds of better grades. An excellent value

I-J– Near-colorless- Slight taints of color more or less noticeable.
K-L-M– Faint Yellow- Faintly tinted, usually yellowish.
N-O-P-Q-R– Very Light Yellow-Lightly tinted, usually yellow. The color tint can be seen with the naked eye.
S-T-U-V-W-X-Y-Z– Light Yellow- Tinted, usually yellow, may progress to brownish. Tint noticeable to the naked eye, even when mounted.

DIAMOND CLARITY

DIAMOND CLARITY

   Clarity refers to the presence of identifying characteristics on your diamond or inside it. Most of these characteristics have been present in your diamond since the earliest stages of its growth rather than being the result of any stresses of the cutting process. They are proof of your diamond’s identity. Since no two diamonds are exactly the same, comparing your diamond’s unique clarity characteristics with the plot provided on your diamond’s certificate lets you know the diamond you pay for is the same diamond you receive.

Clarity grading involves analyzing the size and location of inclusions and blemishes. Inclusions originate during the natural formation of the diamond, while blemishes could be a natural occurrence or the result of mining or manufacturing processes. Inclusions: Internal characteristics such as: included clouds, crystals, or feathers.

   Diamonds are clarity graded using microscopes set at 10-power magnification. Although many characteristics are not visible to the unaided eye, their presence might affect the stone’s clarity grade. By evaluating the size, location, number and color of all inclusions and blemishes, a clarity grade is assigned to a diamond. These grades are universally accepted as standards in the trade and were established by the Gemological Institute of America (GIA).

F / Flawless Diamond - The diamond shows no inclusions or blemishes of any sort under 10x magnification, when observed by an experienced grader.
IF / Internally Flawless Diamond - The diamond has no inclusions, when examined by an experienced grader using 10x magnification, but will have some minor blemishes.
VVS, VVS2 / Very, Very Slightly Included Diamond - The diamond contains minute inclusions, that are difficult even for experienced graders to see under 10x magnification.
VS1, VS2 / Very Slightly Included Diamond - The diamond contains minute inclusions such as small crystals, clouds or feathers when observed with effort under 10x magnification
SI1, SI2, SI3 / Slightly Included Diamond - The diamond contains inclusions (clouds, included crystals, knots, cavities and feathers) that are noticeable to an experienced grander under 10x magnification.
I1, I2, I3 / Included Diamond - The diamond contains inclusions (possibly large feathers or large included crystals) that are obvious under 10x magnification and many affect transparency and brillance.

DIAMOND CUT

DIAMOND CUT

A diamond’s cut grade is an objective measure of a diamond’s light performance, or, what we generally think of as sparkle. When a diamond is cut with the proper proportions, light is returned out of the top of the diamond (which gemologists refer to as the table). If it is cut too shallow, light leaks out of the bottom; too deep and it escapes out of the side.

Excellent cut - Reflects nearly all light that enters the diamond. An exquisite and rare cut.

Very good cut - Reflects nearly as much light as the ideal cut, but for a lower price.

Good cut - Reflects most light that enters. Much less expensive than a very good cut.

Fair cut - Still a quality diamond, but a fair cut will not be as brilliant as a good cut. We do not carry diamonds with cut grades of fair.

Poor cut - Diamonds that are generally so deep and narrow or shallow and wide that they lose most of the light out the sides and bottom. We do not carry diamonds with cut grades of poor.

   Symmetry is how the facets of a diamond align with each other. Differences in symmetry result in loss of light. Someaspects which may affect symmetry include off-center tables, unequal facets, and the thickness and consistency of the girdle.

   Symmetry is regarded as an indicator of the quality of as diamond's cut; it is graded as either Ideal, Excellent, Very Good, Good, Fair or Poor.

   Polish is also graded like symmetry with what appear to be vague adjectives but are in fact precise qualitiy tags:
Ex - Excellent, ID - Ideal VG - Very Good G - Good F - Fair P - Poor
   These quality codes define the finished surface of the diamonds facets. A diamond can have different textures and direction of the carbon composition. This means that when polishing a diamonds facets different directional movement and various degrees of coarseness will give a better finish or polish. Diamond polish can be compared to sanding wood, cutting meat or painting; there is a general direction and texture to be observed for excellence. An excellent or very good polish will perform better than a good polish and a fair or poor polish could have noticeable blemish marks and should be avoided. General value and performance can be found with Good to Very Good polish with ExcellentIdeal Polish a premium for the best finish.

Hearts & Arrows - A diamond that has the top facet or “table facet” exactly perpendicular to the bottom of the diamond or “pavilion” and has its other facets precisely aligned with excellent symmetry, may show patterns that look like arrows from the top and hearts from the bottom. The stone needs to be viewed loose under a gem-scope to see the pattern. Although the hearts and arrows property is indicative of a top-tier cut, it does not always mean the diamond will be the most brilliant. Optimal facet placement is the key to brilliance and more important than facet patterning. Not all ideal round cuts will have the hearts and arrows effect either.

FLUORESCENCE

FLUORESCENCE

   Diamonds often emit a color reaction when subjected to ultraviolet light (UV). Diamond fluorescence is graded on a scale from “None” to “Very Strong.” Most often diamonds fluoresce a blue color, however other colors are possible. If the fluorescence of a diamond is stronger than “Faint”, most grading laboratories will note the color of the fluorescence on the report. Fluorescence can add an interesting quality to a diamond and can actually help diamonds look nicer when they have a lower color grade as in K-M, however, a very strong fluorescence can negatively affect its value.
   Fluorescence has an impact on the price of diamond. Loose diamonds with strong or very strong fluorescence may be cheaper around 20%, than loose diamonds with the same 4C (Carat weight, color clarity, cut), but without fluorescence and their fluorescence status is 'None'.

None - No fluorescence, no influence on diamond color
Faint - Weak fluorescence, not significant influence on diamond color (barely perceptible)
Medium - Average fluorescence, small influence
Strong  and Very Strong - Strong influence, substantial color influence

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